Aseas Afewerki: (Eritrean President)
The first President of the State of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993. The 30-year Eritrean War for Independence was an armed liberation struggle that lasted from 1961 to 1991 and is referred to by the Eritrean people as “Gedli”
Amnesty International believes that at least 10,000 political prisoners have been imprisoned by the government of President Isaias Afewerki. Amnesty also claims that torture – for punishment, interrogation and coercion – is widespread.
Reporters Without Borders rank Eritrea under the government of President Isaias Afewerki last in their press freedom index for the seventh year running, as of 2015.
Omar Hassan Al-Bashir (North Sudan President)
He came to power in 1989 when, as a brigadier in the Sudanese army, he led a group of officers in a military coup that ousted the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi after it began negotiations with rebels in the south.
Since then, he has been elected three times as President in elections that have been under scrutiny for corruption.In March 2009, al-Bashir became the first sitting president to be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), for allegedly directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.
An iron militarist personality:
Al-Bashir joined the Sudanese Army in 1960. Al-Bashir studied at the Egyptian Military Academy in Cairo and also graduated from the Sudan Military Academy in Khartoum in 1966. He quickly rose through the ranks and became a paratroop officer. Later, al-Bashir served in the Egyptian Army during the Yom Kippur War in 1973 against Israel.
A corrupt president
On 14 July 2008, the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, alleged that al-Bashir bore individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes committed since 2003 in Darfur. The prosecutor accused al-Bashir of having “masterminded and implemented” a plan to destroy the three main ethnic groups—Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa—with a campaign of murder, rape, and deportation. The arrest warrant is supported by NATO, the Genocide Intervention Network, and Amnesty International.
Pierre Nkurunziza: (Burundian President)
Burundian educator and former leader of a Hutu rebel group. He became president of Burundi in 2005.
Nkurunziza was raised in the province of Ngozi in northern Burundi, the son of a Tutsi mother and a Hutu father. His father had served as governor of two provinces before being killed in 1972 during a wave of ethnic violence that resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 Hutus and more than 10,000 Tutsis.
In 2015, Nkurunziza was controversially nominated by his party for a third term in office. Supporters and opponents of Nkurunziza disagreed as to whether it was legal for him to run again, and protests followed.
Nkurunziza was a lecturer at Burundi University when civil war broke out in the country following the assassination of Burundi’s first ethnic Hutu democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, in 1993.
He joined the CNDD-FDD in 1995 as a soldier after the army attacked the university campus. In a 2004 interview with the IRIN humanitarian news agency, he recalls the events that occurred:
“In 1995, the Tutsi army attacked the campus and killed 200 students. They tried to kill me too. The attackers shot at my car but I got out and ran away. They torched my car. I then joined the CNDD-FDD as a soldier. This war was forced on us; we did not start it.”
On 13 May 2015, a coup attempt against Nkurunziza occurred while he was out of the country; the coup leader, Godefroid Niyombare, claimed to have ousted Nkurunziza, although Nkurunziza loyalists disputed the claim. Facing resistance from Nkurunziza loyalists, the coup collapsed and forces loyal to Nkurunziza appeared to be back in full control by 15 May.
Robert Mugabe:(Zimbabwe President)
Robert Gabriel Mugabe rose to prominence in the 1960s as the leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) during the conflict against the conservative white-minority government of Rhodesia. Mugabe was a political prisoner in Rhodesia for more than 10 years between 1964 and 1974.
Violations against the White people:
In reaction to human rights violations in Zimbabwe, students at universities from which Mugabe has honorary doctorates have sought to get the degrees revoked.
So far, the University of Edinburgh and University of Massachusetts Amherst have stripped Mugabe of his honorary degree, after two years of campaigning from Edinburgh University Students’ Association. In addition, the student body at Michigan State University (ASMSU) unanimously passed a resolution calling for this. The issue is now being considered by the university.
Salva Kiir Mayardit (President of South Sudan)
Salva Kiir, originates from the Dinka tribesmen, he was born on 13 September 1951 in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region.
He joined the liberation war early in his life, Thereafter, he joined the national Sudan army in which he served until 1983 when he joined SPLM/A led by Dr Garang De Mabior.
Upon the death of Dr Garang, Kiir became the president of the newest nation of the world.
On Dec 15, 2013 there was a coup planned to overthrow Salva Kiir whom they claimed to be a dictator with unwanted tendencies and in the evening a shooting erupted at a military barracks in Juba among The Presidential Guards whose personalities were from Nuer ethnic who knew the order of the day as they were given money and new guns to overthrow president Kiir from majority ethnic Dinka (aka Tiger); the next morning Salva Kiir appeared in a military uniform flanked by his cabinet to announce Dr. Riek Machar and other senior SPLM officials of staging a failed coup against his government.
South Sudan was ravaged by a civil war then, which still goes on in the newest nation.