Ban Ki Moon report to the Security Council: Section on Somaliland Not Alltogether Flattering


The Secretary General of the United Nations submitted the report under the Somaliland section below on 23 January 2015. 

The sections below represent what the UN Secretary said about Somaliland. If its is  balanced, not balanced, correct or incorrect, we leave to your judgment.

Security Council

A. Political situation

  1. In “Somaliland”, as preparations continued to hold parliamentary and presidential elections in 2015, political tension between the government and the opposition intensified over delays in approving the National Electoral Commission of “Somaliland” and passing the voter/civic registration act. On 15 November, parliamentarians from the ruling Kulmiye Party of “Somaliland” tabled an impeachment motion against the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Abdirahman Mohamed Abdillahi “Irro”, who is from the Wadani opposition party. This action resulted in security incidents, including the temporary detention of several parliamentarians and violent protests in other towns in “Somaliland”. The immediate crisis subsided, and on 29 November parliament endorsed the National Electoral Commission, following which the Commissioners took the oath of office on
    7 December.
  2. In the northern region of Sool, claimed by both “Somaliland” and Puntland, fighting resulted in several deaths among various rival Dhulbahante sub-clans with opposing loyalties to “Somaliland”, Puntland and the Khatumo aspiration. Armed Forces of “Somaliland” intervened in the fighting and are currently based in Sadher, near the Ethiopian border.
The UN 'Somalia'
Myopic UN Vision of a ‘Somalia’ in their books


B. Security situation

  1. Western areas of “Somaliland” remained relatively peaceful, while the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions experienced intermittent armed clashes between “Somaliland” forces and militias supporting aspirations for a new state of “Khatumo”. “Somaliland” security forces carried out anti-Al-Shabaab and anti-youth-gang operations in Hargeysa and Boorama on 8 and 9 September, resulting in the arrest of 15 adolescents.

C. Coordination of international efforts

  1. A “Somaliland” High-level Aid Coordination Forum was held in Hargeysa on 3 and 4 November, co-chaired by the “Somaliland” Minister of Planning, Denmark, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United Nations. The meeting reviewed progress made in the implementation of the “Somaliland” Special Arrangements.

Report of the Secretary


FULL Report

UN 2
Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia    S/2015/51

                 January 2015

  1. The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 15 of Security Council resolution 2158 (2014), in which the Council requested me to keep it informed of the implementation of the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) through written reports delivered every 120 days, beginning on 25 September 2014. The report covers major developments that occurred from
    1 September to 31 December 2014.


  1. Political and security developments



  1. Political situation



  1. The reporting period was dominated by a serious political crisis in the Federal Government following the announcement on 25 October by Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed of a cabinet reshuffle, reportedly targeting a Minister close to the President, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, who rejected the changes, asserting that the Prime Minister had not consulted him. On 6 November, parliamentarians supporting President Mohamud submitted a no-confidence motion against the Prime Minister. After some delay owing to disruption caused by parliamentarians who opposed the motion, Parliament reconvened on 2 December to consider the motion, along with several key items on the legislative agenda. On 6 December, Parliament voted on the motion to withdraw confidence in the Prime Minister. Out of 235 parliamentarians present, 153 voted in favour, 80 voted against, and two abstained.
  2. Following departure from office of Prime Minister Ahmed, President Mohamud initiated consultations with political stakeholders and nominated Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke as Prime Minister-designate on 17 December. The nomination was confirmed by Parliament on 24 December.
  3. Despite the crisis, there was some progress on key political milestones. On
    21 December, the Federal Parliament approved the Boundaries and Federation Commission and the Government budget for 2015. The law on the National Independent Electoral Commission was tabled in Parliament on 3 December. On
    9 December, the Speaker established the Parliamentary Oversight Committee, a key body for the constitutional review process.
  4. Earlier, on 14 October, the Puntland State of Somalia and the Federal Government signed an agreement in Garoowe, Puntland, to resume relations, suspended since August 2013. The two parties have since stepped up their collaboration, mainly regarding the Somali Compact. However, the agreement was condemned by the signatories of the Central State Formation Agreement, who objected to provisions concerning the northern Mudug region.
  5. In Baidoa, on 17 November, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan was selected, unchallenged, as leader of the Interim South-west Administration. This was the culmination of a three-week process, in which traditional elders and delegates from the Bay, Bakool and Shabelle Hoose regions adopted a constitution and agreed on a process to form regional governing bodies, including a regional Parliament. On
    19 November, President Mohamud welcomed the outcome.
  6. The implementation of the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 August 2013 continued in the Juba regions (Juba Hoose, Juba Dhexe and Gedo). A reconciliation conference for the Juba regions was held in Kismaayo from 16 September to
    5 October, with about 900 delegates attending. However, some key stakeholders were absent, including opponents of the Interim Juba Administration, in particular from the Marehan sub-clan. Representatives of the latter convened a parallel conference in Garbahaarrey, Gedo region, from 6 to 23 October, and criticized the Kismaayo conference as insufficiently inclusive.
  7. A ministerial delegation of the Federal Government visited Kismaayo on
    15 November and concluded a memorandum of understanding with the Interim Juba Administration on the integration of militias into the Somali National Army. The two sides agreed to establish an integrated and balanced presence of the Somali National Army for the Juba regions and in support of the security forces of the Interim Juba Administration. On 27 December, the leader of the Interim South-west Administration, Sharif Hassan visited Kismaayo. In a communiqué issued with the leadership of the Interim Juba Administration, both sides, inter alia, pledged their support to the Somali state-building process.
  8. There was no significant progress towards the formation of an interim central region state further to the establishment of a technical committee in August 2014. Challenges include differences over the clan composition of the Committee and the proposed location of the reconciliation conference. Inter-clan issues, as well as the political crisis in Mogadishu, have added to the complications. On a positive note, however, the Committee’s chair, Ms. Halima Ismail, is the first woman to hold such a position in the state formation processes.
  9. In “Somaliland”, as preparations continued to hold parliamentary and presidential elections in 2015, political tension between the government and the opposition intensified over delays in approving the National Electoral Commission of “Somaliland” and passing the voter/civic registration act. On 15 November, parliamentarians from the ruling Kulmiye Party of “Somaliland” tabled an impeachment motion against the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Abdirahman Mohamed Abdillahi “Irro”, who is from the Wadani opposition party. This action resulted in security incidents, including the temporary detention of several parliamentarians and violent protests in other towns in “Somaliland”. The immediate crisis subsided, and on 29 November parliament endorsed the National Electoral Commission, following which the Commissioners took the oath of office on
    7 December.


  1. In the northern region of Sool, claimed by both “Somaliland” and Puntland, fighting resulted in several deaths among various rival Dhulbahante sub-clans with opposing loyalties to “Somaliland”, Puntland and the Khatumo aspiration. Armed Forces of “Somaliland” intervened in the fighting and are currently based in Sadher, near the Ethiopian border.



  1. Security situation



  1. The overall security situation in Somalia remains volatile. While joint military operations of the Somali National Army and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) continued to recover territory from Al-Shabaab, the group continued to undertake organized attacks that posed serious threats in the region. On
    1 September, the leader of Al-Shabaab, Sheikh Muktar Abu Zubeyr (Ahmed Godane), was killed in a missile strike in Shabelle Hoose. Shortly after, Al-Shabaab announced the name of their new leader, Al Sheikh Ahmad Dirie Abdikadir Umar (Abu Ubaidah), reasserted their alliance with the Al-Qaeda network, and announced their resolve to conduct reprisal attacks.
  2. Attacks spiked in Mogadishu, targeting primarily officials of the Federal Government and often causing civilian casualties. On 14 September, the Deputy Chief of the Somali Counter-terrorism Unit of the National Intelligence and Security Agency was assassinated. On 12 and 15 October, two vehicle-borne improvised explosive device attacks targeted government officials at a hotel and a popular restaurant, resulting in over 20 fatalities and several injuries. On 11 and
    12 November, a senior immigration officer and the deputy district commissioner for the Hawlwadag district were assassinated. The United Nations was affected by two security incidents, on 3 and 14 December, resulting in a number of deaths and injuries among Somali bystanders and private security guards (details are contained in paragraph 91). On 25 December, elements of Al-Shabaab launched an attack inside the AMISOM protected area against the AMISOM Officers’ Mess and the nearby fuel depot, resulting in the death of a number of AMISOM troops and civilian contractors.
  3. Al-Shabaab also remained active in other parts of Somalia. On 5 December, in Baidoa, Bay region, attacks took place targeting a crowd in front of the Dahabshiil money transfer office. Approximately six minutes after the detonation of the personnel-borne explosive, a vehicle parked close to the scene exploded, killing and injuring people who had gathered to assist victims of the first blast. A total of
    19 persons were killed, and 37 were injured. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility through a press release, stating that they had targeted government and military personnel.
  4. In September and October, AMISOM and the Somali National Security Forces conducted joint operations across several districts in Mogadishu, during which they arrested more than 50 suspected Al-Shabaab fighters and confiscated weapons, ammunitions and uniforms. They also conducted similar security operations in parts of the Shabelle Hoose region, as well as in Baidoa and Kismaayo.
  5. In southern and central Somalia, AMISOM and the Somali National Army completed their joint offensive, “Operation Indian Ocean”, on 31 October. The operation recovered Jalalaqsi, the last remaining Al-Shabaab stronghold in the Hiraan region on 3 September; Rage-Ceele and Cadale in Shabelle Dhexe on
    30 September and 1 October, respectively; and Baraawe in Shabelle Hoose, the key operational and revenue-generating hub of Al-Shabaab, on 6 October. In addition, in Juba Hoose, AMISOM and security forces of the Interim Juba Administration captured Bulagadud on 7 October, but lost Koday Island to Al-Shabaab on
    8 November.
  6. Despite the military advances, stability is yet to be achieved in most of the recovered areas, as Al-Shabaab continues to target AMISOM and Somali National Army forces with ambushes, improvised explosive devices and probing attacks. In a bid to consolidate the gains achieved, AMISOM announced on 18 November plans for a new campaign “Operation Ocean Build”, focused on enhancing stabilization by holding key population centres and protecting their inhabitants and movements along the main supply routes.
  7. In Puntland, security forces began extensive operations against Al-Shabaab in the Galgala Mountains. On 8 September, police discovered components of improvised explosive devices in an area occupied by government officials and international non-government organizations in Garoowe. The deteriorating security situation along the Boosaaso-Garoowe road, with increased criminal activities by Al-Shabaab and clan militias, affected road movement.
  8. Western areas of “Somaliland” remained relatively peaceful, while the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions experienced intermittent armed clashes between “Somaliland” forces and militias supporting aspirations for a new state of “Khatumo”. “Somaliland” security forces carried out anti-Al-Shabaab and anti-youth-gang operations in Hargeysa and Boorama on 8 and 9 September, resulting in the arrest of 15 adolescents.



III.   United Nations support to peacebuilding and State-building



  1. Good offices and political support



  1. My Special Representative, Nicholas Kay, worked closely with international partners, in particular the African Union, the European Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), as well as with Somali political leaders, to facilitate mediation efforts between President Mohamud and former Prime Minister Ahmed. After the no-confidence motion against the former Prime Minister was adopted, my Special Representative welcomed the appointment of new Prime Minister Sharmarke and called for the speedy formation of a new, inclusive government and for Somali political leaders to re-focus attention on political, security and development issues.
  2. My Special Representative also continued to provide good offices and technical advice to the Federal Government and regional stakeholders on state formation processes. After urging the Federal Government and Puntland to resolve their outstanding issues, he travelled on 13 October to Garoowe to engage with the actors and witnessed on the following day the signing of an agreement, with the representatives of the European Union and IGAD, as well as the Ambassador of Ethiopia. My Special Representative also visited Kismaayo on 9 October and stressed to the leadership of the Interim Juba Administration the importance of continued reconciliation in the Juba regions. On 3 December, he attended the inauguration of the new President of the Interim South-west Administration, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, along with the Federal President, Federal cabinet ministers, parliamentarians, and delegations from Puntland, the Interim Juba Administration and Galmudug. In support of the critical state formation process, my Special Representative expressed the intent of the United Nations to increase its presence in the region, and support to the establishment of the interim administration.
  3. In furtherance of my personal commitment to the process of peacebuilding and state-building in Somalia, I visited Mogadishu on 29 October, together with the President of the World Bank Group, the President of the Islamic Development Bank, and senior representatives of the African Development Bank and the African Union. During my visit, I met with the leadership of the Federal Government and other local stakeholders, including representatives of Somali women’s and youth groups. I called upon Somali political leaders to work together and avoid political instability, and reaffirmed the commitment of the international community to continue supporting Somalia.


Development of a federal system and constitutional review/Democratic politics and governance


  1. Political infighting between President Mohamud and Prime Minister Ahmed delayed approval by the cabinet of revised priority draft laws, especially the Boundaries and Federation Commission and the National Independent Electoral Commission, meant to establish key institutions for the state formation and electoral processes. Both were finally approved by the cabinet on 18 November, and tabled in Federal Parliament on 3 December. On 21 December, the Federal Parliament approved the Boundaries and Federation Commission Law. UNSOM and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) provided substantive inputs to both bills.
  2. The United Nations continued to provide expertise, as requested by the Federal Government and Parliament, to support planning for the constitutional review, including clarifying the roles of responsible Somali bodies. Following the establishment of the Independent Constitutional Review and Implementation Commission (ICRIC) in June 2014, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohamed Osman Jawari, reorganized the Parliamentary Oversight Committee, tasked with leading the constitutional review process. The Committee was eventually reduced from 23 members to 10, as constitutionally mandated, whose names were published on 9 December. A Sub-committee on Civic Education and Public Consultation was also established on 9 December, which is mandated to support the Oversight Committee, the Independent Constitutional Review and Implementation Commission and the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs. With relevant Somali stakeholders, UNDP and UNSOM developed plans to support the constitutional review process, including by facilitating the preparation of workplans for the ICRIC and the Oversight Committee. They are also making arrangements to support the Interim Juba Administration in drafting an interim constitution, following its request on 30 November. To this end, representatives of UNSOM and UNDP visited Kismaayo on 16 December.
  3. UNSOM and UNDP strengthened the Integrated Electoral Support Group to facilitate electoral planning as well as to provide strategic advice to the Federal Government, Parliament and the leadership of UNSOM. A Deputy Chief Electoral Adviser was deployed in October, and additional electoral advisers are ready to be deployed upon the establishment of the National Independent Electoral Commission.



  1. Stabilization



  1. The United Nations continues to support the Federal Government in implementing its stabilization strategy, which envisages the establishment of caretaker administrations and law enforcement actors in 25 government-identified districts across the country. The administrations are intended to initiate and coordinate reconciliation and dialogue processes with the population, through the establishment of District Peace and Stability Committees.
  2. To date, 13 of the 25 districts have been recovered through the joint operations of the Somali National Army and AMISOM, with caretaker administrations deployed to 12 of them. Deployments of police have been reported in the Baraawe and Xuddur districts, while the training of police officers selected for future deployments will take place in early 2015. The intention is to train and deploy
    10 police officers for each recovered district, to be complemented by 35 locally recruited community safety officers.
  3. Work is under way with UNDP and the Ministry of Interior and Federal Affairs to implement a $3.5 million Peacebuilding Fund project, which intends to address the critical gaps in the newly recovered areas. The project manager has already been deployed and efforts are under way to identify community liaison officers from the local community. One of the main aspects of the Peacebuilding Fund project is to provide financial support to the local administration. To this end, the process of transferring funds to the districts is being finalized, and is expected to contribute to financial transparency and accountability at local level.



  1. Coordination of international efforts



  1. The ministerial High-level Partnership Forum was held in Copenhagen, from 19 to 20 November. The meeting offered an opportunity to re-validate the Somali Compact as the framework for international engagement. While highlighting the progress achieved to date, participants also noted areas requiring further attention, including transparent public financial management and delivery of peace dividend in the newly recovered areas. The Somali delegation participating at the conference included representatives of Interim Regional Administrations and regions. The conference adopted a communiqué, which included a commitment to review progress in political and security fields within six months. The meeting was recognized as successful, promoting open discussions between the Federal Government and partners about the priorities and challenges for the year to come. The contribution of UNSOM to the success of the meeting was recognized and praised by the Federal Government and Member States.
  2. A “Somaliland” High-level Aid Coordination Forum was held in Hargeysa on 3 and 4 November, co-chaired by the “Somaliland” Minister of Planning, Denmark, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United Nations. The meeting reviewed progress made in the implementation of the “Somaliland” Special Arrangements.
  3. A Senior Leadership Coordination forum between AMISOM and UNSOM, chaired by Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia, Maman Sidikou, was held in Mogadishu on 9 November. The forum recognized the need to further strengthen the joint work between AMISOM and UNSOM and agreed to explore the possibility of establishing joint thematic teams.
  4. During the reporting period, there has been a high level of coordination and cooperation among Somalia’s international partners, in particular over the political crisis. IGAD, the European Union, AMISOM and a number of Member States were active in supporting the ongoing state-building and reconciliation processes throughout the country. Partners at the London Security Event committed to coordinate all security sector assistance through the mechanisms of the Compact. International partners also worked more closely with each other and the Federal Government in responding to the humanitarian crisis, including assistance from the United Arab Emirates and Turkish Red Crescent.



  1. Security sector and rule of law



Security sector reform


  1. On 13 November, the Federal Government, with the support of UNSOM, held the inaugural meeting of the Working Group for Peacebuilding and State-building goal 2 of the Somali Compact on security. The lack of strategic direction on the development and militia integration of the Somali National Army and the need for political engagement were discussed. On 18 September, at a high-level security meeting in London, participants committed to developing a plan to strengthen the capacity of 10,900 personnel of the Somali National Army designated for joint operations with AMISOM and to establish an accountability framework for support of the Somali National Army for militia integration. Meanwhile, UNSOM began a regional outreach pilot programme in Puntland to advance security sector reform.
  2. The Defence Working Group was restructured to include a wider range of institution-building activities. The Somali National Army training symposium on
    8 and 9 October reviewed training priorities and scheduled training for the next
    18 months.
  3. In compliance with Security Council resolution 2142 (2014), the Federal Government submitted its periodic report, with the support of UNSOM, on arms control on 13 September. As part of the activities of the Federal Government Arms and Ammunition Working Group and Steering Committee, 18 weapons and ammunition stores were constructed, and 57 store keepers were trained.
  4. On 9 December, UNSOM, the World Bank, and Federal Government officials held a conference in Mogadishu to discuss the security and justice sectors public expenditure review. Agreement was reached on several actions to accelerate the review process in 2015. The review will bridge existing information gaps on current security and justice expenditures, as well as future costs and financial gaps based on various options for federal and regional security arrangements.


Disengaging fighters


  1. The implementation of the national programme for disengaged combatants focused on the establishment of transitional facilities in Baidoa for disengaged female fighters of Al-Shabaab. At the request of the President of Puntland, UNSOM visited Garoowe to consider extending the programme. In the meantime, the Federal Government initiated work on the policy on people who returned/disengaged from membership in terrorist groups. The exercise offers an opportunity to improve the overall policy framework for providing support to disengaging combatants.




  1. The United Nations continued to support capacity-building of the Somali Police Force through the provision of training, logistical support and assistance in strategic and operational planning. Registration of approximately 5,500 police officers in the Banadir region was completed with support from UNSOM. Of those officers, 5,100 are eligible for stipends, for which the European Union provided $5.9 million to cover the remainder of 2014. On 4 December, the Police Working Group endorsed the 2015/2016 Rule of Law Police Workplan.
  2. The United Nations rule of law team visited Buulobarde, Kutumwary, Wajid and Maxaas to assess the security situation and encourage SPF to deploy officers as part of the Federal Government’s stabilization strategy. AMISOM plans to train 75 officers for this assignment with support from UNSOM. The team visited Baraawe and Xuddur in November to assess the impact of the deployment of 10 Somali Police Force officers to those areas.
  3. UNSOM, in conjunction with AMISOM and the European Union, conducted seven training programmes for a total of 45 Somali law enforcement officials on digital radio communications, professional standards, tactical management and field training in Puntland and Mogadishu.
  4. With training, equipment and mentoring from the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), the first Improvised Explosive Device Defeat team of the Somali Police Force became operational in Mogadishu in December. The team is self-sustaining and requires only minimal external technical support. The Somali Police Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal Units, supported by UNMAS, responded to
    856 explosive hazard call-outs in Mogadishu and Baidoa. The Somali Police Force explosive ordnance disposal teams were also deployed temporarily to respond to explosive hazards in recovered areas and established a permanent presence in Beledweyne.


Justice and corrections


  1. The Somalia Joint Rule of Law Programme 2015-2016 was finalized and awaits endorsement by the Somalia Development and Reconstruction Facility Steering Committee. Support to strengthen institutions continues and has expanded to include the office of the recently appointed Attorney-General. However, there remains a critical gap for support to the judiciary pending the appointment of the members of the Judicial Services Commission.
  2. The pilot project at the Banadir Regional Court complex continued with the provision of equipment and 10-day training on judicial protection and security for 75 custodial corps personnel, police officers and protection teams in the Attorney‑General’s office in Mogadishu, and 60 custodial corps and police officers in Garoowe, Puntland. Support was provided to commence the registration of security institutions personnel in Puntland.
  3. Support was also provided for the development of a Corrections Service Strategic Plan and a training curriculum for corrections staff. Infrastructure assessments of rule of law facilities were completed in Mogadishu, Baidoa, Beledweyne and Kismaayo, as a first stage for further regional engagements. The rehabilitation pilot project for high-risk prisoners in Baidoa progressed with the selection of the members of the Somali Advisory Committee.


Maritime security


  1. The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, in cooperation with UNSOM, held a two-day awareness-raising seminar for Somali parliamentarians in Mogadishu in October on the rights and responsibilities of States as set out in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The workshop, which was attended by more than 20 members of parliament representing 11 parliamentary committees, aimed at building knowledge to facilitate the development of overarching legal and institutional frameworks for the effective governance of Somalia’s maritime zones and the conservation, management and sustainable use of the resources therein. The seminar was the first activity undertaken as part of the Division’s capacity-building programme for Somalia, funded by the Trust Fund to Support Initiatives of States Countering Piracy off the Coast of Somalia.


Mine Action


  1. Explosive hazard risk education and improvised explosive devices safety messaging were delivered to 832 people within affected communities in
    19 locations, with a focus on camps for internally displaced persons and schools in newly recovered areas, and returnees in Dhobley and Ceel Waaq. Survey and clearance resulted in making 175,000 m2 of previously contaminated land in south-central Somalia safe for productive use.
  2. As a component of the logistical support package provided by UNSOA, UNMAS embedded mentors on explosive ordnance disposal devices and counter-improvised explosive devices with AMISOM and provided training on how to defeat improvised explosive devices, enabling AMISOM to assist in the recovery of strategic areas that were affected by explosive hazards. UNMAS facilitated
    82 casualty evacuations of the personnel of AMISOM and the national army from operational areas.




  1. The United Nations Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force Office has established contact with the United Nations country team in Mogadishu to explore ways through which the Task Force and its entities, including the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre, might support the Federal Government on rehabilitation and countering the appeal of terrorism, and on related issues.



  1. Human rights and protection



                            Human rights


  1. The human rights situation remains dire. Civilian casualties are frequent as a result of direct attacks, including inter-clan fighting, revenge, military operations or excessive use of force. With increased civilian movement in the newly recovered areas, the security of road networks remains a concern.
  2. The death penalty and public executions continued to be carried out in the country. Six people were executed by the Somali authorities during the reporting period. In Puntland, on 18 November, six former Al-Shabaab fighters were sentenced to death by the military court in Boosaaso. Al-Shabaab conducted at least 12 public executions during the same period, including on 29 September, when four men accused of spying for the government were publicly executed by firing squad in Baraawe, Shabelle Hoose Region.
  3. Forced evictions of internally displaced persons in Mogadishu remain a concern, as 14,000 such persons were reportedly forcefully evicted in Mogadishu during the reporting period. Many members of the affected population did not receive prior notice, and intimidation, force and violence were reported.
  4. UNSOM continued to provide support to the Federal Government in the implementation of the human rights road map, including the holding of a workshop held in November to develop an action plan in furtherance of the Somali Compact peace and state-building goals and support for the bill on the Human Rights Commission, which is currently being considered by Parliament.
  5. UNSOM trained 965 members of the Somali National Army in international human rights and humanitarian law.
  6. The independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia, Bahame Tom Nyandunga, conducted his first visit to Somalia from 6 to 13 December. He noted the acute resource and capacity constraints of the Federal Government, which have a negative impact on the rule of law sector. The failure to guarantee media freedom and the continued violation of women’s rights, including the high incidence of sexual violence, particularly in settlements for internally displaced persons, also continued to be of concern.


                            Child protection


  1. On 13 December, the Somali Parliament passed the motion to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child with reservations on the freedom to choose one’s religion, adoption, and State protection of children temporarily removed from their families. The ratification process is expected to be concluded in January 2015 with the signing by the President.
  2. A total of 504 verified incidents of grave violations against children’s rights were documented, which affected 940 children, including 812 boys and 128 girls.
  3. Following concerns expressed in August by my Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict on the continued presence of 55 children at the Serendi camp, the United Nations country task force on monitoring and reporting has continued to engage the Federal Government, key stakeholders and donors on the transfer of the children to existing programmes supported by the United Nations. This is consistent with the standard operating procedures for the reception and handover of children separated from armed groups, which were adopted by the Federal Government on 13 February 2014.
  4. On 12 September, the AMISOM Force Commander, with the support of the United Nations country task force on monitoring and reporting, issued a directive to strengthen accountability and compliance with child protection standards by troops during and after operations.


                            Sexual violence in conflict and gender-based violence


  1. Progress was made on the development of the legal framework to address sexual violence. The sexual offenses bill was reviewed by the Federal Government, with support from the United Nations. The draft incorporates views from a range of stakeholders in order to promote compliance with human rights standards. A similar process has also started in Puntland.
  2. On 8 September, Human Rights Watch released a report containing allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by AMISOM. In response to the allegations, the African Union restated its policy of zero tolerance, and a special investigation team, appointed to look into the allegations, visited Mogadishu in November. The United Nations Task Force on Human Rights Due Diligence Policy, which met on
    18 September, welcomed the commitment of the African Union to look into the findings and called for transparent and credible investigations.
  3. UNSOM provided support to the AMISOM capacity-building Workshop on the Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 9 to 11 October, where the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia and Head of AMISOM committed AMISOM to addressing sexual exploitation and abuse, and to investigating any allegations made.
  4. In November, the African Union Special Envoy for Women, Peace and Security, Binta Diop, visited Somalia. During her meeting with the UNSOM leadership, she reiterated the commitment of the African Union to implement its zero tolerance policy to curb sexual violence and abuse and to support the empowerment and protection of women, and called for a stronger partnership with UNSOM.



  1. Gender mainstreaming and empowerment of women



  1. In September and October, UNSOM and the United Nations country team provided support to the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development in finalizing the action plan for the development of the national gender policy, aimed at providing an overall framework for gender mainstreaming in Somalia.
  2. The low level of women’s participation in the ongoing state formation process remains a concern. For example, in the Baidoa Reconciliation Conference in September, women were not represented: lack of resources and formal education, as well as traditional clan structures, were identified as key challenges. To ensure women’s greater role in the subsequent state formation processes, UNSOM supported a mission on women’s solidarity to Baidoa in October, led by the Somali Women Leadership Initiative.
  3. In collaboration with the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom, UNSOM and the Resident Coordinator’s Office provided support to the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development in organizing the women’s side event at the High-level Partnership Forum in Copenhagen on
    19 November. The event generated new momentum towards the realization of women’s enhanced political participation in Somalia, which was reflected in the forum communiqué.



  1. Humanitarian situation



  1. Humanitarian conditions have worsened this season owing to drought, conflict, rising food prices, access constraints and slow funding. Over 1 million people in Somalia are unable to meet their basic food requirements, an increase of 20 per cent since February 2014. A further 2.1 million people are on the verge of slipping into acute food insecurity. This brings the number of people in need of humanitarian aid to 3.2 million, the highest since the end of the famine. The overall nutrition situation has deteriorated, with 14.9 per cent of children under the age of five in Somalia acutely malnourished and 2.6 per cent severely malnourished.
  2. Floods caused by rising river levels continue to negatively affect Somalia. Seasonal flooding was reported in six regions of Somalia with varying levels of severity. An estimated 50,000 people were affected by the flooding, and about 30,000 people were temporarily displaced.
  3. A total of 9,562 suspected cases of measles were reported this year, double the caseload in 2013. With $1.45 million in financial support from the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund and $300,000 from the Somalia Common Humanitarian Fund, vaccination campaigns targeting 500,000 people were launched in October in accessible areas of the Kismaayo, Afmadow and Badade districts in the Juba Hoose region, the entire Banadir region and regions of Puntland. Meanwhile, this year’s polio vaccination campaign reached over 400,000 children under the age of five, and allowed for containment of the polio outbreak. Only five cases of wild polio virus were registered in 2014, compared with 194 cases in 2013. Nutrition supplies were delivered in newly accessible and hard-to-reach areas to meet the needs of about 14,000 children.
  4. Civilians continue to bear the brunt of the violence in conflict-affected areas. An estimated 1,000 conflict incidents with humanitarian implications were registered in 2014. The number of reported incidents involving improvised explosive devices was the highest since September 2013. The military offensives against Al-Shabaab, “Operation Eagle” and “Operation Indian Ocean”, led to the displacement of an estimated 80,000 people.
  5. The operating environment in Somalia remains one of the most difficult in the world for humanitarian personnel. In 2014, over 2,200 violent incidents against humanitarian personnel and assets were recorded, involving the deaths of six aid workers, the abduction of six, the injury of two, the attempted rape of one and the arrest of three people.
  6. Despite challenges and persistent insecurity in parts of Somalia, humanitarian organizations are currently reaching people in need in all 18 regions of the country, including many newly accessible areas. Aid workers used different modalities to reach communities, including cargo flights delivering humanitarian assistance as a stop-gap measure to areas inaccessible by road. Road access remained severely constrained in 28 districts in southern and central Somalia owing to insecurity, road blockages and encirclement of newly recovered areas by non-State armed actors.
  7. On 24 November, Somalia Country-Specific Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination Guidelines for Humanitarian Actors’ Engagement with AMISOM were launched. The guidelines establish agreed principles and practices for constructive civil-military relations between AMISOM and humanitarian actors operating within the same environment in Somalia.
  8. Critical life-saving humanitarian programmes are at risk of shutting down in 2015 owing to severe funding shortages. Despite continued efforts by donors, funding is not commensurate with growing humanitarian needs. As of 29 December, the Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan, budgeted at $933 million, received only 41 per cent of funding required for 2014. Meanwhile, the 2015 Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan seeks US$ 863 million to address the humanitarian needs of 2.76 million people of the 3.2 million Somalis assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance.


                            Progress in securing access


  1. Despite some improvements, security along main supply routes remains a significant impediment to the delivery of humanitarian and development assistance, as well as to the movements of private business and military logistics, in most of south-central Somalia. Priority routes include the Mogadishu-Baidoa-Doolow and Mogadishu-Buulobarde-Beledweyne axes. Lack of access hinders humanitarian assistance, as well as all other activities related to stabilization, including the deployment of administration and police, police activities, and the implementation of community projects. It also diminishes the capacity of the government to establish and maintain a regular and sustained presence at the local level. AMISOM is working more closely with the Federal Government on organizing convoys. Meanwhile, some newly recovered towns are accessible from the regional capitals and a resumption of business has been observed in some locations, in spite of the efforts of Al-Shabaab to restrict access.



  1. Socioeconomic recovery and development



  1. The Federal Government has initiated critical reforms to strengthen its public finance management systems and institutions. An audit policy and a procurement law have been drafted and submitted to Parliament, although they have not been passed yet. For the first time since 1991, the International Monetary Fund initiated discussions with the Somali authorities in mid-September on enhancing macroeconomic statistics and developing the legal framework, strengthening the financial sector and improving public finances.
  2. Somalia was accepted in September as a beneficiary country of the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries. This will allow it to access international trade-related technical assistance to help diversify its economy towards high-growth, high employment, and/or high-value sectors.
  3. Efforts are continuing to increase and diversify production in agriculture, livestock, and fisheries. Over the past three months, 60,000 farming households were supported through a voucher-based distribution of agricultural inputs and training on Good Agricultural Practices.
  4. With the support of the United Nations, a national youth employment framework has been developed by the Federal Government. The framework is the result of several months of consultations and labour market studies, and identifies the most urgent employment needs of young people across Somalia.
  5. With the support of the African Development Bank, the Federal Government carried out infrastructure sector needs assessments in energy, transport, water and sanitation, and information and communication technology, focusing on immediate and long-term needs, and policy and legal frameworks required to increase investment.
  6. Scaling up the delivery of basic services remains a priority of the United Nations support to the Federal Government. The delivery of the Essential Package of Health Services was scaled up, to benefit more than 80,000 pregnant women and 406,000 children under five years of age in 2014. The public education sector was revived with the enrolment of more than 87,765 children in formal primary education and close to 9,000 new students in alternative basic education. A total of 291 permanent classrooms were opened in September and close to 2,300 additional teachers were recruited and trained.



  1. Targeted sanctions



  1. The final report on Somalia of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea was issued as a Security Council document on 13 October (S/2014/726). On
    24 October, the Council adopted resolution 2182 (2014), by which it extended, inter alia, the partial suspension of the arms embargo for the development of the Somali National Army until 30 October 2015 and requested Somalia to report to it by
    30 March 2015 and again by 30 September 2015 on the structure of those forces and infrastructure in place to ensure the safe storage, registration, maintenance and distribution of military equipment. The Council also extended the mandate of the Monitoring Group until 30 November 2015. I appointed five out of the eight experts of the Monitoring Group on 28 November. The process of appointing the remaining three experts is under way.



  1. Implementation of resolutions 2124 (2013) and 2182 (2014)



  1. As described above, significant progress was achieved in the military campaign against Al-Shabaab during “Operation Indian Ocean”. Through the Defence Working Group, UNSOM and UNSOA succeeded in mobilizing international support for the 10,900 Somali National Army troops authorized to benefit from United Nations logistical support, with a total of 7,955 Somali soldiers having received human rights training under the human rights due diligence policy. “Operation Indian Ocean” also benefitted from improved joint planning among AMISOM, the Federal Government, UNSOM and UNSOA. However, challenges persisted with regard to the synchronization of the military advances with the implementation of stabilization measures.
  2. UNSOA and UNSOM continued to work with other partners in implementing the human rights due diligence policy in Somalia. In line with its provisions, the United Nations is completing a risk assessment, which identifies a set of mitigation measures to be implemented by AMISOM, including in cases of allegations of sexual violence and abuse. In the light of serious allegations of human rights violations levelled against the late Police Commissioner, UNSOM sent a letter to the then Prime Minister on 15 October: reminding the Federal Government of the commitments of the United Nations under the human rights due diligence policy; flagging the implications of this appointment in terms of the support provided by the United Nations to the Somali Police Force; reminding the Federal Government of the need to carry out thorough, fair and transparent investigations; and reminding the Federal Government to develop and implement a systematic vetting procedure of the Police for senior appointments.


                            Logistical support to the African Union Mission in Somalia and the Somali National Army


  1. UNSOA provided support to the rotation of the Ugandan, Burundian and Kenyan contingents in December. It also commenced planning for the deployment of an additional battalion of 900 troops from Djibouti in early 2015. Following a request from the African Union, UNSOA commenced preparations for the repatriation of the Sierra Leone contingent from Somalia, scheduled for mid-January 2015. UNSOA also made progress in the maintenance of AMISOM fighting vehicles by providing critical spare parts valued at $2.3 million.
  2. UNSOA continued to provide medical support to AMISOM and the Somali National Army, and conducted Ebola preparedness training for AMISOM and United Nations medical personnel. UNSOA also significantly upgraded medical facilities in Somalia with the construction of a level II hospital in Baidoa, operated by the Ethiopian contingent, and a level I clinic in Beledweyne, operated by the Djiboutian contingent, which was scheduled to be upgraded to a level II hospital. As at 11 December, UNSOA had evacuated 225 injured troops, 156 AMISOM and
    69 Somali National Army.
  3. UNSOM and UNSOA also continued to improve the capacity of AMISOM, including through predeployment and in-mission training in movement control, firefighting, airfield management, and the management of fuel and rations. Since April 2009, UNSOA has trained 10,093 AMISOM personnel in the various fields.
  4. UNSOA has so far incurred expenditures of $4.5 million from the Trust Fund in support of the Somali National Army in joint operations with AMISOM with food, fuel, tents, transportation, water storage and medical evacuations to the AMISOM level II hospital in Mogadishu. The Trust Fund received total contributions of $13.55 million from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Italy and New Zealand. Pledges from Denmark and Sweden are being finalized. In addition, Ethiopia has indicated that it would contribute to the Trust Fund in support of the Somali National Army. The low utilization rate of contributions was the result of delays in identifying and training Somali National Army troops in compliance with the eligibility preconditions for United Nations logistics support.
  5. United Nations presence in Somalia



                            Expansion of United Nations presence in Somalia


  1. During the reporting period, the international staff figures averaged 331, while national staff figures averaged 951 across Somalia. The international staff average for Mogadishu was 216, including a total of 73 UNSOM and 119 UNSOA international staff. The new UNSOM headquarters adjacent to the Mogadishu International Airport, Villa Nabad (the Somali word for “peace”), will become operational in January 2015. Villa Nabad will enhance the Mission’s ability to engage with government officials and other Somali interlocutors outside the airport area.




  1. The integrated strategic framework was endorsed and signed by the Federal Government during my visit to Mogadishu on 29 October. The integrated strategic framework provides an integrated plan of United Nations activities in Somalia until the end of 2016, in full alignment with the Somali Compact and its principles. Implementation of programmatic activities will be coordinated through the framework of the Somali Development and Recovery Facility, and the United Nations Multi-Partner Trust Fund will play a key role in mobilizing partners’ support.
  2. To provide strategic direction to United Nations activities in Somalia and to review and monitor progress under the integrated strategic framework, a Senior Management Group has been established under the chairmanship of my Special Representative. The group comprises senior-level United Nations representatives as members, including my Deputy Special Representatives, the Director of UNSOA, the Chief of Staff of UNSOM, heads of mission pillars, and heads of resident United Nations agencies, funds and programmes.


                            Staff safety and security


  1. As previously mentioned, the reporting period was marked by three incidents affecting the United Nations in Mogadishu. On 3 December, a United Nations convoy came under a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device attack just outside of Mogadishu International Airport. Four Somali civilians were killed and several private security guards injured, some of them severely. No United Nations personnel suffered physical injuries. On 14 December, six mortar bombs were fired at the Mogadishu International Airport. Four bombs landed within the AMISOM protected area, but did not cause significant damage. No group has claimed responsibility for the attack. On 25 December, Al-Shabaab carried out an attack inside the AMISOM protected area against the AMISOM Officers’ Mess and the nearby fuel depot, resulting in the deaths of a number of AMISOM troops and civilian contractors. Several injured personnel were evacuated to Nairobi on 26 December. No United Nations personnel suffered physical injuries.
  2. In the rest of Somalia, the United Nations Security Management System is continually reviewing posture and remains engaged with the host government on safety and security of United Nations personnel and programmes. While there has been a constant stream of threat reports relative to Mogadishu, there are also elevated threat levels that have been declared by government officials in Boosaaso, Puntland. In other areas of Puntland, security forces remain at alert.
  3. The amendment to the status-of-mission agreement, aimed at facilitating the United Nations Guard Unit’s operations, remains under negotiation with the Federal Government. Memoranda of understanding are also under negotiation with the African Union and the Federal Government, aimed at coordinating the Unit’s operations with those of AMISOM and the Somali security forces.



  1. Observations



  1. While considerable progress was made during the reporting period, precious time was lost as a result of the political crisis between the President and the former Prime Minister. The work of the Federal Government and the parliament was stalled. Those developments were all the more worrying as they reminded us of the cycle of instability and divisions among political leaders that had compromised Somalia’s progress in the past.
  2. Somalia’s leadership must now work together to form a new cabinet and restore its unity to regain momentum in the political process. There is no time to lose, and the ambitious agenda ahead requires unity, credibility and continuity of leadership. It is incumbent upon them to exercise the leadership expected of them by the long-suffering Somali people.
  3. I urge Somalia’s political leaders, federal and regional, to focus in the coming months on the full implementation of Vision 2016 in accordance with the timetable. The year 2015 is the time for Somalis to realize their aspirations for federalism, by implementing their commitments to form inclusive regional administrations, and undertaking constitutional negotiations that will define the future of the country. This is a historic process that must involve all segments of society, particularly women, youth and marginalized groups that have hitherto seen little future for their interests in a Somali state.
  4. I welcome the important progress made toward state formation in 2014, especially the formation of an Interim South-West Administration in Baidoa, and encourage the central regions to move forward without further delay. I remain concerned about the inclusivity of these processes. I urge all concerned to ensure that regional administrations and reconciliation processes include women, youth and marginalized groups, and that the integration of regional forces ensures balanced representation. Otherwise, their outcomes may not be sustained. However, I am encouraged by the conduct of the long-awaited reconciliation conference for the Juba regions, and by the agreement reached on 15 November by the Interim Juba Administration and the Federal Government to start the long-delayed integration of regional forces into the Somali National Army. It is important that all state formation processes comply with the Provisional Federal Constitution.
  5. I welcome the resumption of cooperative relations between the Federal Government and the Puntland State. I call upon the two parties to honour the commitments made in the Agreement of 14 October and work in harmony to make up for time lost during the year-long suspension of relations.
  6. The ministerial High-level Partnership Forum in Copenhagen was an important recognition of progress and reaffirmation of the international community’s commitment to Somalia. Somalis and international partners must redouble their efforts to implement the Compact, as a vehicle to make tangible changes on the ground. It is critical that the Federal Government and sub-federal administrations work together to establish functioning and inclusive local governance structures, and focus on the development and implementation of programmes and policies in each sector. Donors and Somalis also need to prioritize capacity-building of Somali institutions, and continue to coordinate their activities to ensure complementarity and consistency through the Compact structures. I urge the Somali authorities and international partners to work more closely in monitoring and implementing the Compact to this end. The review of progress in the political and security fields by mid-2015, as agreed at Copenhagen, will provide an important opportunity to assess our collective efforts and adjust critical timelines.
  7. I pay tribute to the success of “Operation Indian Ocean”, conducted jointly by the Somali National Army and AMISOM forces. Their courage and sacrifice have given the Federal Government the opportunity to exert its authority over more territory and I thank the governments of the troop-contributing countries for their continued commitment to the Somali people. The integrated planning between AMISOM, the Federal Government, the United Nations and other international partners was an important contribution to this success. I encourage this effort to continue in the planning and implementation of subsequent operations and call for strengthened cooperation among the regional partners in this effort. The success of these operations makes a considerable contribution towards stabilising Somalia through the resultant peace dividend. I also welcome our collective resolve to support the efforts of the Federal Government to scale up stabilization efforts in newly recovered areas and beyond, while noting continuing challenges of access.
  8. A focused effort is now needed to strengthen the Somali rule of law and security sectors including the army, police and other institutions. To do so effectively, it is imperative that Somali leaders agree on the future security sector architecture with the federal vision in mind. A military strategy alone cannot deliver long-term security. I urge all concerned to support the development of a comprehensive strategy that will stabilize Somalia’s regions and reduce the scope for Al-Shabaab. This strategy must include more comprehensive political and development efforts to counter the threat of terrorism in the region.
  9. I reiterate the call on AMISOM and the Somali National Army to continue their efforts to secure main supply routes as a matter of utmost priority, consolidate control over recovered areas, and proceed with the removal of Al-Shabaab from remaining territories under their control. This will contribute to the creation of conditions conducive to the safe, rapid, unimpeded and civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance to people in need, in accordance with humanitarian principles. I also call on the Federal Government and international partners to accelerate the delivery of assistance at the local level.
  10. I am deeply concerned about continued human rights violations and abuses throughout the country. While I urge the Federal Government to expedite ongoing initiatives for the protection and promotion of human rights and address impunity, the international partners must also prioritise such protection and accountability measures, particularly in regard to women and girls. I call upon the stakeholders to continue implementation of the human rights due diligence policy, including monitoring and reporting, provision of technical support and delivery of human rights and international humanitarian law training for AMISOM and the Somali National Army. The United Nations stands ready to continue providing support to actors towards compliance with international obligations.
  11. The critical humanitarian situation in Somalia remains of serious concern. Erosion of the fragile gains made since the 2011 famine are alarming. I urge donors to review their contributions to ensure that humanitarian funding is commensurate with current needs. Safe and unhindered humanitarian access must be established in all areas of Somalia, in full respect of international humanitarian law and principles.
  12. Despite the tough challenges ahead, we enter 2015 with cautious optimism. The past year has seen progress on political, security and development fronts. The Somali people are committed to peace, and their international partners are redoubling their efforts to help, despite the risks and challenges. I was able to see some of the manifestations of this for myself when I visited Mogadishu in October 2014, together with Dr. Jim Young Kim, President of the World Bank, and representatives from key multilateral partners. We must all stay the course. With sustained, dedicated partnership from the international community, Somalia can bring an end to the nightmares of the past generation and build a stable and prosperous future. I commend the unity of purpose and practical cooperation between international partners, their active support for UNSOM and their increasing presence on the ground despite the challenges.
  13. I pay tribute to my Special Representative, Nicholas Kay, his deputies and the staff of UNSOM, UNSOA and the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, as well as other international and regional organizations in Somalia, for their continued hard work under hazardous and challenging conditions. The attacks, which we have witnessed are a constant reminder of the ever-present risks and danger of the operating environment in Somalia. I pay tribute to the work of the United Nations Guard Unit, whose deployment has significantly enabled the United Nations presence in Mogadishu.

































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